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How to Design a PCB Layout: Everything You Need to Know
gesptechnologypcbMay 31, 2017 Blog 0 Comment402views

Today’s electronic technology permeates our lives everywhere. For example, cell phones, computers, TVs, cars or airplanes, 5G communication. For all kinds of electronic products, PCB layout is an important design process. that must be carried out to transform them from electrical schematics to a concrete product. Fixer the electronic components in specific locations in the device or the terminals of the components . are reliably connected in an organized manner. The soundness of the design is closely related to the production and quality of the product. and without a correct PCB layout, most devices will not function.

And for many people just engaged in electronic design. although they have learned the printed circuit board design software. but the design of the printed circuit board often encountered: the selection of unusable components. footprint does not match, wiring confusion. How to correctly layout the PCB for smooth production, let us go through this article in detail to understand.

  • What is PCB Layout?
  • The basic principles of PCB Layout
  • Placement order
  • PCB layout techniques
  • PCB layout considerations
  • Layout check
  • PCB layout software
  • GESP PCB layout service advantages

What is the PCB Layout?

PCB layout is a broad term that refers to several processes required to design a PCB. It includes creating alignments, mounting hole cutouts. marking and specifying component locations. PCB layout divided into two ways: manually or automatically. Almost all PCB design software has an automatic routing feature. Many designers use the automatic routing feature.

because it saves time and makes the process easier. Although the auto-routing feature of PCB design is the easier route, it is not always the best. This is because it is not always as precise and symmetrical as it should be. To ensure that automatic routing produces the best results. you need to use the proper parameters . as they enable the automatic function to calculate the routing correctly.

Layout Check

Layout Check

Basic Principles of PCB Layout

  • Be clear about the needs of the producer
  • Manage the spacing of the original parts in the layout
  • Always create a ground plane
  • Avoid overlap

Be clear About the Producer’s Needs

Know what the producer needs Before you start placing components. you need to consult with your manufacturer. It is important to be clear about their requirements, such as how many layers they can handle. Other requirements may include things like minimum alignment width and alignment spacing.
 

Managing The Spacing of Originals in a Layout

 

Managing the spacing of originals in a layout When current flows through copper traces. Temperature increase. This heat Lowering the temperature. so that it does not exceed the safety threshold. You can control this heat by managing the width of the markers. and ensuring that there is enough space between them. a process called PCB alignment spacing. Wire spacing can be a challenge when dealing with high-density interconnect PBCs. To determine what needs to be done about line spacing in this case. it is critical to understand some important parameters. However, this can be tedious and time consuming. The good news is that most PCB design software based on the important parameters to design.

Always Create a Ground Plane

It is always important to have a common ground terminal in the circuit schematic. This is critical for PCB layouts because it provides traces with the same reference point to measure voltages. Problems arise when you try to wire using a trace rather than a ground plane. Cadence.com, a provider of software, hardware, and IP. identifies three key roles for the grounding layer in PCB design. Voltage return:components in the PCB connected to the power network, . and the grounding network provides a path for returning voltages. Signal return: Provides a path for returning signals so that they do not interfere too much. Noise and interference reduction. The large conductive area of the ground plane helps reduce interference. because it has a lower impedance than when using an alignment wiring ground network.

Considerations of PCB Layout

Considerations of PCB Layout

Avoid Overlap

One of the challenges of mixed-signal PCB layouts is overlapping planes. A mixed-signal PCB layout has both digital and analog circuits on one board. If not managed properly, this overlap can introduce interference problems . between digital and analog signals. Therefore, when it comes to PCB layout, you need to make sure you avoid overlap-related problems at all costs. GESP recommends that you “always leave space between components”.

Placement Order

1.Placement of components that have a close fit with the structure, such as power sockets, indicators, switches, connectors, etc.
 
2.Placement of special components, such as large components. heavy components, heat generating components, transformers, ICs, etc.
 
3.Placement of small components.

PCB Layout Skills

1.Important unit circuit, core components limited layout
 
2.Evenly distributed, properly adjusted
 
3.small components around the large components can not placed. debugging components around the adequate space
 
4.the same part of the circuit, try to use symmetrical layout
 
5.high voltage, high current signals and small current, separated low voltage weak signals. separate Analog signals and digital signals . separate high-frequency signals and interference signals . high-frequency components are spaced adequately.
 
6.The key signal lines priority, power, analog signals, high-speed signals. clock signals and differential signals priority wiring.
 
7.Start wiring from the single board connection line relationship of the most complex devices. and start wiring from the most dense area of the single board connection line.

GESP PCB Layout Service

GESP PCB Layout Service

Considerations of PCB Layout

1 Power, Ground Handling

Even if the wiring in the entire very well. but due to power, ground considerations are not thoughtful interference. caused by the performance of the product will decline. and sometimes even affect the success rate of the product. So the electricity, ground seriously wiring. the electricity, ground noise generated by the interference to a minimum, to ensure product quality.
 
For each engineer engaged in the design of electronic products are aware of the noise . between the line and the power supply of the reasons. only to reduce the type of suppression noise to express:
 
It is well known to add a decoupling capacitor between the power supply and the ground.
 
As far as possible to widen the power, ground width. preferably ground than the power line width, their relationship such as. ground> power line> signal line, usually, signal line width: 0.2 ~ 0.3mm, Fine width of up to 0.05 ~ 0.07mm, the power line is 1.2 ~ 2.5mm
 
The PCB of the digital circuit can use a wide wire to form a loop. that is, to form a ground to use with a large area of copper for the ground line. in the printed circuit board has not been used on the ground connected with the ground as a ground. Or made of multi-layer board, power, ground each occupied a layer.

2 Digital Circuit and Analogue Circuit Common Ground Processing

Now there are many PCB is no longer a single functional circuit . but by the digital circuit and analogue circuit mix. So when wiring needs to consider the interference between them. especially on the ground noise interference.
 
Digital circuit frequency is high, the sensitivity of the analog circuit is strong, the signal line, the high-frequency signal line as far as possible away from the sensitive analog circuit devices, the ground, the whole PCB on the outside world only one node, so Must be handled within the PCB number, the problem of the common ground, and in the board of digital and analog ground is actually separated from each other between them are not connected, but in the PCB and the external interface (such as plugs, etc.). Digital and analogue to a little short, please note that there is only one connection point. There are also on the PCB on the ground, which determined by the system design.

3 Signal Lines on the Electric (ground) Layer

In the multi-layer printed circuit board wiring. because the signal line layer is not finished cloth line left is not much. and then add more layers will cause waste will also increase the production of a certain amount of work. the cost has increased accordingly To solve this contradiction. you can consider wiring in the electrical (ground) layer. First consider the power layer, followed by the formation. Because it is best to preserve the integrity of the formation.

4 Large Area Conductor in the Treatment of Connecting Legs

In a large area of the ground (electricity), the commonly used components of the legs . connected to the connection legs to deal with the need for comprehensive consideration. the electrical performance, the component legs of the pad and copper surface is better. but the Components of the welding assembly. there are some bad risks such as welding need high-power heater. Or easy to cause virtual solder joints.
So taking into account the electrical performance and process needs. made of cross-pad, known as the heat shield.commonly known as the thermal pad . so that the welding can be too much heat due to cross-section of the potential Greatly reduced. Multilayer board of the power (ground) layer of the same treatment.

5 Cabling in The Role of Network System

In many CAD systems, cabling determined by the network system. Grid is too dense, although the channel has increased. the pace is too small, the figure of the amount of data is too large. which must have a higher storage requirement of the equipment. but also the object of computer electronic products operating speed Great influence. And some passages are ineffective, such as those occupied by the pads of the component legs or by the holes. The grid is too sparse, the passage of too little impact on the cloth rate. So there must be a dense and reasonable grid system to support the wiring.
 
The distance between the legs of the standard component is 0.1 inch (2.54 mm). so the foundation of the grid system is generally set to an integer multiple of 0.1 inches (2.54 mm) or less than 0.1 inches. such as 0.05 inch, 0.025 inches, 0.02 Inch and so on.

Layout Check

After the wiring design has completed. the wiring design needs to be carefully checked to see if it conforms to the rules set by the designer. It is also necessary to confirm whether the rules are in line with the requirements of the PCB production process. The general check has the following aspects.
 
Whether the line and line, line and component pad. line and through-hole, component pad and through-hole. through-hole, through-hole and through-hole are reasonable and meet the production requirements.
 
Are the power and ground lines the right width, and is the power supply tightly coupled to ground (low impedance)?
 
Are the best measures taken for critical signal lines. such as the shortest lengths. plus protection lines, and are input and output lines clearly separated.
 
Are there separate grounds for analog, and digital circuitry sections.
 
Graphics in the PCB (e.g. icons, markers) can cause signal shorts.
 
Modifications made to some unsatisfactory lines.
 
Are there process lines on the PCB? Does the resistor meet the production process requirements. is the resistor soldering size appropriate. and are the character marks pressing the device pads. so as not to affect the quality of electronic devices.
 
Are the edges of the outer edges of the power supply reduced in multi-layer boards. such as exposed copper foil on the power supply is prone to short circuits.

PCB Layout Software

Some of the best PCB layout software on the market include
 
Autodesk Eagle: comes with a schematic editor for design diagrams, and a PCB layout editor.
 
KiCad: This is a cross-platform, open source electronic automation suite. It includes a PCB editor for creating professional PCBs. and a schematic editor for editing and creating schematic designs.
 
Fritzing: has several features including schematics, breadboard layouts, and PCB views.
 
DesignSpark PCB: Provides an easy-to-learn environment, including schematic capture and PCB layout tools.
 
EasyEDA: Provides a library designer, PCB editor, and project management tools.
 
UpVerter: has similar features to EasyEDA. enabling hardware engineers to create, share, and view PCBs and schematics.
 
ExpressPCB Plus: is EDA software for designing and creating electronic circuits.

GESP PCB Layout Service

Even if you can do your own PCB layout, using GESP PCB layout services can bring some advantages. These layout services can be of great help, especially if you are a beginner in this field.
 
PCB layout services are available for existing and new PCBs. some of the advantages of using PCB layout services include.
 
Technical competence: We have extensive experience in PCB design when it comes to designing PCBs.
 
Streamlined process: With PCB layout services, fixed the error early. allowing you to improve your product before marketing.
 
Better quality: Layout services have better quality . because each service is expected to be better than the competition.
 
Fast turnaround: With expert services, PCBs can be designed on time with careful planning.
 
Cheaper: Due to economies of scale, it may be cheaper to use a PCB layout service than to design your own PCBs.

PCB LAYOUT

PCB LAYOUT

Standard PCB Layout Designer Deliverables

A reliable PCB designer can meet a minimum set of deliverables, including

Bill of materials (BOM)

Manufacturing documentation

PCB layer stacking diagrams

Complete schematics

Complete Gerber files

3D PDF files

Routing and drilling files

Conclusion

PCB layouts are critical for board functionality. Assume you’re having difficulty with your board layout. In that case, you can always seek help from a company that manufactures PCBs according to the best layout plans. Ascertain that the company understands the significance of PCB layouts in order for your boards to function properly.

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