PCB material in the use of scenarios, products, performance. materials area and other aspects are very different. resulting in choose different PCB material used in the type of components. connection line thickness, wiring density and other aspects of the very large changes. So, what factors need to considered when choose PCB material selection. and what are the differences types between PCB substances? Let’s go through this article to understand thoroughly about PCB materials. and how to selecting PCB materials.
What Is PCB Made Of？
Before understanding the PCB materials we need to fully understand the PCB. PCB stands for Printed Circuit Board. and it is typically made of a non-conductive substrate material. such as fiberglass or plastic, which is coated with a thin layer of conductive metal. usually copper, on both sides. The copper etched away in specific areas to create a pattern of conductive traces. that connect different components and circuits on the board.
The substrate material provides mechanical support and insulation for the circuit. while the conductive traces allow electricity to flow between components. Additional layers of substrate and conductive trace added to the board. to accommodate more complex circuits.
What Are the Various PCB Types?
There are many different types of PCB available. and the specific type used depends on the application. and requirements of the electronic device being developed. Some of the most common types of PCBs include:
These have components on one side of the board and conductive traces on the other.
These have components on both sides of the board. with conductive traces on each side connecting them.
These consist of several layers of conductive traces separated by insulating layers.
These made from a rigid material, such as fiberglass. and used in applications where durability and stability are important.
These made from a flexible material, such as polyimide. and used in applications where the board needs to bent or twisted.
These designed to handle high-frequency signals and used in applications. such as radar and satellite communications.
High-density interconnect (HDI) PCBs:
These have a high density of components and conductive traces. allowing for smaller and more complex devices.
These have a metal core that provides better heat dissipation. and used in high-power LED lighting and power electronics applications.
These have a ceramic substrate that provides better thermal. and mechanical stability and used in high-temperature and high-power applications.
There are many other types of PCBs available as well, each with its own unique features and benefits. The type of PCB chosen for a particular application will depend on factors. such as the desired functionality, size, and cost of the device.
What Is PCB Material Composition？
PCB composed of several layers of different materials. that serve different functions in the board. The basic composition of a typical PCB includes:
The base material of a PCB known as the substrate. It provides the foundation for the circuitry. and is usually made of fiberglass-reinforced epoxy resin (FR-4) or polyimide. The substrate is a non-conductive material. that helps insulate the different layers of the PCB.
Copper Clad Laminate (CCL):
The CCL is a layer of copper foil bonded to the substrate material. The thickness of the copper foil can vary depending on the requirements of the circuit design. The copper foil is used to create the conductive pathways. and interconnects between different components on the board.
The solder mask is a layer of polymer applied to the surface of the PCB. to protect the copper traces from oxidation and prevent short circuits during soldering. It is usually green in color but that customized based on the requirements.
The silkscreen is a layer of ink printed on the surface of the PCB to identify components. provide reference designators, and other relevant information. The ink used is usually white and printed in various colors.
Too to these basic layers, PCBs can also have additional layers such as a copper pour layer. a power plane, or a ground plane, depending on the complexity of the circuit design.
Types of PCB Materials Classifications
According to Reinforced Materials :
Paper board – FR-1, FR-2 (Phenolic Cotton Paper), FR-3 (cotton paper and epoxy)
Epoxy Glass Cloth – FR-4 (Woven Glass and Epoxy), FR-5 (Woven Glass and Epoxy)
Composite board – CEM-1 (Cotton Paper and Epoxy), CEM-3 (Non-woven Glass and Epoxy)
HDI board (RCC – Resin Coated Copper)
Special board (metal board, ceramic board, etc.)
According to Types of Resin:
PI resin (polyimide)
According to Flame Retardant Properties:
Flame retardant (UL94-VO, UL94-V1)
Non-flame retardant (UL94-HB level)
What Kinds Of Materials Are Used To Make PCB?
This is a fiberglass reinforced epoxy laminate material. and is the most commonly used material for PCBs. It is a rigid material that is resistant to heat, moisture, and chemicals.
Metal Core PCBs used in high-power LED lighting . and power electronics applications, as the metal core provides better heat dissipation. The metal core made of materials like aluminum, copper, and stainless steel.
Ceramic PCBs used in high-temperature. and high-power applications because of their thermal and mechanical stability. The ceramic substrate is made of aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, or beryllium oxide.
Rogers is a brand name for a family of high-performance laminates . that used in high-frequency applications. They offer low loss and good electrical performance at high frequencies.
Polyimide PCBs are flexible, lightweight, and heat-resistant. They used in applications where the board needs to bent or twisted.
Teflon PCBs are also used in high-frequency applications. because of their low loss and excellent electrical performance at high frequencies.
Paper Phenolic PCBs used in low-cost applications. where high reliability and performance are not required.
The choice of material depends on the specific requirements of the application. such as the operating temperature, frequency, and power requirements. as well as the desired cost and manufacturing process.
How Do I Choose PCB Material?
Choosing the right PCB material is important for ensuring. that your PCB performs well and meets your specific needs. Here are some factors to consider when choosing a PCB material:
One of the most important factors to consider is the electrical properties of the material. You need to choose a material that has the right dielectric constant. and loss tangent for your particular application. These properties affect the speed and quality of signal transmission on the board.
You should also consider the thermal properties of the material. A material with high thermal conductivity can help dissipate heat more effectively. which is especially important for high-power applications.
The mechanical properties will affect its durability and resistance to physical stress. such as bending or twisting. Consider the requirements of your application. and choose a material that can withstand the expected stress levels.
The cost of the material is also an important consideration. While high-end materials may offer better performance. they may not be necessary for all applications. You should choose a material that meets your requirements without exceeding your budget.
Make sure that the material you choose is readily available from your preferred PCB manufacturer. Some materials may only be available in limited quantities or from specific suppliers.
Consider any environmental factors that may affect your PCB material. such as exposure to moisture, UV radiation, or chemicals.
Overall, choosing the right PCB material requires careful consideration of a variety of factors. Consult with your PCB manufacturer or a materials expert. to help you make an informed decision based on your specific needs.