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GESP Technology

15+Years Devoted to PCB Solutions & Manufacturing

  • Why should we focus on TG on PCB ?

    Introduction

     

    Temperature fluctuations can have a substantial impact on PCBA performance, dependability, and quality. Rising temperatures, in particular, cause the PCB material to expand. resulting in mechanical strains …

    gesptechnologypcbSeptember 16, 2022 Blog 0 Comment759views
  • A Guide to the Various Solder Mask Colors-Update 2022

    Which of the various Solder Mask Colors available on the market. what should I choose? Do these Solder Mask Colors have any special meanings or symbols in the industry? Will the color of the solder mask and screen printing have an effect on the PCB‘s functionality? What is causing the solder resist on my electronic PCB board to fall off? Today, the editor will summarize to explain the mysteries of solder mask .

     

    What is a PCB Solder Mask?

     

    The solder mask layer is a solid-colored protective film . formed on the PCB by the welding resist after high-temperature baking . To protect non-solder parts from solder. we usually distribute it on printed PCB boards where no soldering is required. It is the permanent protective film to scratched. During component soldering, the deposition or diffusion of solder on the non-solder area . also serves the purpose of preventing a short circuit between wires. The solder mask also has anti-moisture, anti-chemical, heat resistance, insulation. and a lovely appearance.

     

    soldermask

    PCB Soldermask

     

    What Exactly is Solder Mask Ink?

     

    To protect the circuit pattern, solder resist is an insulating ink that applied to the surface of PCB. When mounted components on the board. one of the primary functions of solder resist is to prevent solder from adhering to undesirable areas. various types of solder resist ink .and also have various Solder Mask Colors.

     

    UV Curing and Thermal Curing

    Thermal and UV solder masks are made by combining welding resist and a strengthening agent. With a specific amount of toner, according to the needs of the customer. However, the PCB produced by this ink has oil leakage and jump printing issues, and the appearance is poor.

     

    Soldermask Ink LPI

     

    Most factories are using liquid photo-imaging solder resist ink with better results. Tamura DsR2, TaiyoPSR, Cotes XV, Toyo K, Gin Hwa DSR, and Lea Ronal. Danachm, and other company products, two-component, these models have all been UL certified. Green is the most common color, but yellow, black, white, and other colors are also used. Asian products are generally shiny, whereas European and American products are predominantly matte.

     

    What are the Different Colors of Solder Mask Available?

     

    GREEN

    Because it makes everything visible. green is the most commonly used PCB soldermask color. The white text on green soldermask has a high contrast. and the finish is not too bright to reflect too much light, reducing glare. Because it does not interfere with display wiring. green is the most commonly used solder color.

    green solder mask

     

    WHITE

    White soldermask applications are becoming more common. because they enhance the appearance of PCBs in a clean environment. However, because the white solder resist layer hides traces. pcba placement processing can be difficult. In this case, checking the wiring is nearly impossible. especially if you are in a room with only direct overhead lighting.

    white solder mask

     

    BLACK

     

    When compared to white soldermask, black soldermask causes slightly less visibility issues. It is frequently used in high-end and large-scale assemblies. The disadvantage is that the light may catch the component and cast small shadows. making it difficult to see traces. Because of the increased heat, which can discolor the silkscreen and make the board more difficult to clean. the black PCB soldermask option is also generally not recommended.

    black solder mask

    RED

     

    It’s a very nice board, just like white. Because they provide good visibility and contrast for flat surfaces, traces. and even your blank space, red boards are becoming a popular choice. Although it is not as contrasty as a green board. it will give the PCB a new look when compared to the stale industry standard. The screen printing stands out against the red.

    red solder mask

     

    BLUE

     

    Blue soldermask used for heavily labeled boards. because it contrasts sharply with the screen print. The trace becomes more difficult to see without proper lighting and magnification. so this is the balance of this blue option. Blue is commonly chosen due to its appearance. It’s not as striking as white or black, but it does provide a striking aesthetic option. that hints at complexity and craftsmanship, especially when mounted on an LCD.

    blue solder resist

    YELLOW

     

    Many new colors are being introduced, but they can be difficult to work with. Although yellow is a pleasant color, it contrasts poorly with screen printing and traces. making it difficult to use in any practical application. Various colors will balance various needs, such as cleanliness, visibility, and style.

    yellow solder resist

     

    How Do You Choose the Right Solder Mask Color?

     

    The three colors of green, black, and white each have their own set of applications. Other colors, such as red, yellow, and blue, have no specific application reasons . and chosen for personal aesthetic reasons. Some companies may use different colors to differentiate between product grades. such as green low-end, red mid-end, blue high-end, and so on.

     

    Some businesses define the blue board as the board during the trial development period. We set the means of different color PCBA, and the color itself serves no purpose. Other than green, we use the majority of the colors on the PCB of finished product transactions. The appearance of the circuit board. such as the motherboard and graphics card. without a casing will be more appealing and will attract buyers.

     

    Because the customer cannot see the PCB inside the shell. he or she cannot determine whether the color is acceptable. So, whether for practicality or cost considerations, go with the most traditional green. Using the same 10cm2 FR-4 PCB as an example, Matte black PCB is 34 $ more expensive than green solder mask PCB. Light green, sun green, dark green or matt green. red, blue, white, black, yellow. and other standard solder mask colors are currently available on the market.

    Colorful PCBA Module

    Does the Solder Mask Color Effect its Functionality?

     

    The color of the solder mask has no effect on PCB performance. It has no meaning in and of itself, and if you have a purpose, you give it. It may have a minor impact on the exposure process of the electric PCB board. but it will have an impact on overall quality, which we can almost ignore.

     

    If no special requirements exist, we recommended to use a green solder mask, at the very least to save money. If you care about the appearance of the PCB or want to sell branded semi-finished products. go with the color you prefer. Remember to choose the solder mask ink brand before going into production. do an excellent processing pre-treatment, and debug and control the solder resist. Get rid of solder resist and screen printing issues.

     

    Why does Apple use black Solder?

     

    What is the distinction between a green and a blue mask?

     

    Not only is the iPhone’s black electric circuit board black. but so are the core circuit boards of many high-end brands. Under normal circumstances, the supplier does not recommend the use of black solder mask oil . because it causes the entire board to be black, making it difficult to see the circuit. the appearance inspection of the board factory, and the later product debugging and maintenance to have a large impact. so the cost of black ink will be slightly higher than other noise.

    However, because of this, black ink is frequently used to represent high-end PCB boards. a confident display of its products, and the protection of its technology. This color ues more frequently on computer motherboards, graphics cards, and development boards. It has a thick and soothing feel in the hand.

     

    For example, used it on the motherboard in the beginning, while other brands are still green. Because the black appearance is not natural to check. after-sales repair will be difficult and expensive, necessitating high PCB quality. The ASUS motherboard uses black to demonstrate its excellent quality . and dependable after-sales service. as well as to enhance the brand’s Product image.

     

    Now that more and more brand manufacturers are aware of the issue. they will propose relevant requirements for the PCB solder mask color of some products.

     

    Why does the PCB Solder Mask a fall off?

     

    The solder resist can fall off for a variety of reasons. including improper storage, but the majority of them caused by process factors. From the standpoint of the process, divide it roughly into the following situations:

     

    The proportion of solder resist is unreasonable before curing. or the quality of the solder resist is inadequate, resulting in poor adhesion.

     

    The pretreatment before curing is missing. resulting in excessive impurities on the board’s surface. There are bubbles and contaminants between the solder mask and the board surface. after curing and the stroke layout.

     

    The ink thickness is too thin, making it easy to scratch and fall off. Mask for soldering Inadequate curing time results in incomplete adhesion.

    Soldermask Fall Off

     

    How to Fix the Solder Mask Peeling Problem?

     

    • Change to the proper ink.
    • Add a solder resist pre-treatment process and improve the pre-treatment process.
    • Increase the amount of exhaust air by using the proper temperature and time.
    • Change the dosage or add other additives.

    There are 27 conventional solder mask and screen printing problems and solutions. I have put them together and put them in the form of the link below. If you need it, you can click to download it.

     

    At GESP Technology, Professional PCB one-stop service.Our ongoing goal is to help every client to go to the market as quickly as possible and occupy more competitive advantages through our supply services. How to quickly supply zero-defect PCBs while meeting the demanding needs of customers to help customers achieve sustainable production

    Contact US

    gesptechnologypcbAugust 22, 2022 Blog 0 Comment787views
  • 7 Steps Guide in PCB Design Process Update 2022

    Introduction

    The Basic PCB Design Process is as follows:

    Pre-preparation -> PCB structure design -> PCB layout -> wiring -> wiring optimization and screen printing -> network and DRC check and structure check -> plate making.

    PCB DESIGN PRROCESS

    PCB DESIGN PROCESS

    Why do we need a PCB design?

    In this way, PCB design is an indispensable part of any project. However, in the previous design, due to the very low frequency, very small density, and large spacing between the tubes of the devices. The PCB design is aimed at connectivity without any other functional or performance challenges.

    So for a long time, PCB design was very low in the overall project. It was usually the hardware logic connection designer who did the physical connection of the PCB. There are still some small products in the development of such a model, smartphone.

    With the rapid development of electronics and communications technology. Today’s PCB design is already facing very different and new challenges.

     

    Steps PCB Design Process

    1. Pre-preparation

    Including the preparation of component libraries and schematics. Before proceeding with the PCB design. prepare the schematic SCH component library and the PCB component package.

    The PCB component package is best built by the engineer based on the standard size of the selected device. In principle, the establishment of the PCB component package library. and then make the schematic SCH component library.

    PCB DESIGN PROCESSING

    PCB DESIGN PROCESSING

    PCB component package library requires a higher. and it directly affects the PCB installation. Schematic SCH component library requirements are relatively loose. but pay attention to the definition of excellent pin properties. and PCB components package library correspondence.

    2. PCB Structure Design

    According to the board size and the mechanical positioning. in the PCB design environment to draw a PCB frame. and according to the positioning requirements of the required. such as connectors buttons/switches, screw holes, assembly holes, and so on. Fully consider and determine the wiring area and non-wiring area.

    3. PCB Layout Design

    The layout design is in the PCB board frame by the design requirements of the device. Create a network table (Design →Create Netlist) in the schematic tool. and then import the network table (Design → Import Netlist) in the PCB software. After the success of the network, the table exists in the software background. through the Placement, operation can be all the devices out of the pin between the line suggested that the connection. then the device layout can be designed.

    PCB layout design is the PCB design process in the first necessary process. the more complex the PCB board, the layout the better. and more direct impact on the late implementation of the degree of difficulty.

    PCB DESIGN LAYOUT

    PCB DESIGN LAYOUT

    Layout design relies on the circuit board designer’s foundation and design-rich experiences. the circuit board designers are a higher level of requirements. The experience of the primary circuit board designer is still shallow. suitable for small module layout design, or the whole board is awkward for PCB layout design tasks.

    4. PCB Wiring

    PCB layout design is the PCB design of the most massive workload. directly affect the performance of the PCB board is good or bad.In the PCB design process, wiring generally has three realms:

    The first is the cloth, which is the most basic PCB design requirements;Followed by the performance of an electrical performance. which is a measure of whether a standard PCB board. after the line wiring, carefully adjust the installation. so that it can achieve the best electrical performance.

    Once again, neat and beautiful, chaotic wiring, even if the electrical performance clearance. that will also be to the latter part of the board. optimization and testing and maintenance to bring great inconvenience. wiring requirements uniform, can not be criss-cross any rules.

    5. Wiring Optimization and Silkscreen Display

    “PCB design is not the best, but it is better.” PCB design is a flawed art. This is primarily due to the PCB design’s ability to meet all aspects of the hardware design requirements. Individual needs may be in conflict, but fish and Bear’s paw cannot have both.

    A PCB design project, for example, It designed into a 6-layer board for a circuit board designer. However, for cost reasons, the product hardware and the requirements need to be designed for the 4-layer board. The signal shield formation is then sacrificed, resulting in adjacent wiring. Signal crosstalk between layers increases, lowering signal quality.According to design experience, optimizing the routing time takes twice as long as the initial cabling.

    6. Network DRC Inspection and Structural Inspection

    Quality control is an essential part of the PCB design process. and the general quality control means include design self-test and mutual design inspection. the expert review meeting, and special inspection.

    A schematic diagram and structural elements map are the most basic design requirements. network DRC inspection and structural inspection are to confirm the PCB design. to meet the schematic netlist and structural elements of the two input conditions.

    General circuit board designers will have their accumulation of design quality check Checklist. which part of the entry from the company or department of the specification. the other part comes from their own experience. A special inspection includes the design of the Valor inspection and DFM inspection. these two parts concerned about the PCB design output back-end processing light painted files.

    7.Plate and Making

    PCB board in the formal processing before the board. the circuit board designers need to PCB board for the PE to communicate. reply to the manufacturers on the PCB board to confirm the problem.

    This includes but is not limited to PCB board model selection. line layer line width adjustment, impedance control change. PCB stacking thickness change, surface treatment processing technology. aperture tolerance control, and delivery standards.

    Our PCB Design Process Focuses on

    1. The realization of the function
    2. Stability of performance
    3. Easy processing
    4. Aesthetics of the veneer

     

    Conclusion

    Even under the same logic connection, the same device. but PCB their performance test results will be different. A good design not only product stability, and can pass a variety of demanding tests. But not ideal design is not possible to achieve such results. In some low-end products, many manufacturers use the same chipset, the logic connection is similar. The only difference is the level of their respective PCB design. product differentiation is mainly reflected in the design of the PCB. GESP PCB has 20 years of experience in PCB design, and PCB Fabrication.Please contact us freely.

    gesptechnologypcbAugust 15, 2022 Blog 0 Comment473views
  • What is Rogers PCB?

    Introductions

     

    As a professional manufacturer of high-frequency circuit boards, GESP PCB often encounter the question of which is better,FR-4 VS. ROGERS PCB For Manufacturing RF PCBS? This article will explain in detail the difference between FR4 and Rogers.

    rogers pcb materials

    What is FR4 Materials?

     

    FR-4 is a kind of flame-resistant material grade code. which means that the resin material must be able to extinguish itself after the burning . it means a material grade. so there are very many kinds of FR-4 grade materials used in general circuit boards. but mostly choose epoxy resin plus filler (filler) and glass fiber composite materials.

    FR-4 PCB as the substrate for PCB. mainly classified into the following four types.

    • FR-4: glass cloth substrate
    • FR-1, FR-2, etc.: paper substrate
    • CEM series: composite substrate
    • Special material substrate FR-4 is a plate laminated product . That made of special electronic cloth dipped in epoxy phenolic resin. and other materials by high temperature and high pressure hot pressing.
    • FR-4 PCB has features,as high mechanical and dielectric properties. good heat and moisture resistance and good machinability.

    What is Rogers PCB Materials?

     

    Rogers PCB is a type of high frequency board produced by Rogers. Unlike conventional PCBs, The main raw material is epoxy resin. there is no glass fiber in the middle of the board. and the ceramic base applied as the high frequency material. Rogers has superior dielectric constant and temperature stability. and its coefficient of thermal expansion of dielectric constant is very consistent with copper foil. which can improve the shortcomings of PTFE substrate. it is ideal for high frequency pcb design. as well as commercial microwave and RF applications. Because of its extremely low water absorption. it is ideal for high humidity applications. at the same time, providing customers in the high frequency board industry. with the highest quality materials and related resources to control product quality.

    Benefits of Rogers PCB

     

    • The Rogers PCBs have a low moisture absorption rate, minimal thermal expansion, and exceptional dimensional stability under varying conditions.
    • The material of Rogers PCB is compatible and the PCB is simple to construct. because it is only 0.1mm thick.
    • Rogers PCB provides superior thermal management and is appropriate for heat-generating electrical devices and circuits.
    • In space applications, Rogers PCB reduces outgassing.
    • The Rogers printed circuit board matches trace locations and dimensions, hence enhancing impedance control.
    • The PCB from Rogers provides consistent high-frequency performance.

    What Is The Difference Between FR4 Materials and Rogers PCB ?

    When comparing fr4 materials with rogers PCB. they are usually used for the production of high frequency circuit boards. We can also combine the two types of boards to meet the needs of our customers in terms of price and performance.

     

    6 Differences Between FR-4 Material and Rogers Material

     

    Fees &Budget

    FR-4 is one of the competitive-cost materials used in the manufacture of PCB. It preferred for minimal processing costs. Even though PCBs made of FR-4 materials are known for cost-effective and widely used. However, if you are not on a budget limit ,and need high-performing PCBs made of the best materials. you could choose Rogers materials. Nevertheless, By considering the price of the content and its processing needs, it becomes possible to determine if you get value for your money.

     

    High Frequencies

    People like printed circuit boards made of FR-4 . because they are cheap, reliable, and easy to understand how they work. widly used from making microwaves to making audio circuits. Unfortunately, high-frequency applications are not the best place for PCB made of FR-4. Rogers made the most well-known special laminates for high frequencies. The dielectric constant of its materials is about 20% lower than that of FR-4 materials. which used to make printed circuit boards.

    The best way to decide if high-frequency laminates will work better for your project. It is to look at the mechanical and electrical needs of the job. If you think there are too many electrical and mechanical differences. Rogers’ materials is a better choice.

     

    Df/Dissipation

    One of the most important things that affect the impedance. and stability of a board is its dielectric constant. The more stable the impedance is, the higher the dielectric constant. Even though FR4 is the least expensive sub-state. Its highest dielectric value is 4.5, while Rogers PCBs have a higher and broader range, from 6.5 to 11. Because of this, Rogers PCBs are the best choice for high-temperature applications . where stable impedance is important.

     

    Dielectric Constant (Dk)

    Electronic circuits that operate at high frequencies need constant and stable DK values. over a wide range to make PCB material selection easier for designers. A substance with a high dielectric constant will store a large amount of charges. resulting in increased voltage and capacitance. Rogers’ PCB material supply a wide variety of frequencies with a consistent value of dk. making it an excellent choice for broadband purposes and applications. Rogers PCB’s dielectric constant also has comparatively low temperature coefficient values. allowing it as first choice for use in temperature-sensitive devices. Rogers 4350b has a dielectric constant of 3.66. making it appropriate for connecting two sites in a microwave application.

     

    Temperature Management

    Heat management materials are an important p

    art of many electronic uses.

    Because the temperature of these things needs to kept at certain levels.

    So, it is true that materials that can handle heat are a basic requirement for making PCBs.

    If PCBs need to work at a wide range of high temperatures with few changes. Rogers materials are better options. In short, when it comes to managing temperature. Rogers material does a better job than FR-4 because it has less variation.

    Moisture Absorption

    Moisture absorption is the electrical and thermal properties of the substrate material. This, in turn, affects the performance of the board. Rogers PCBs have minimal moisture absorption . and so provide greatest efficiency in a wide range of environmental conditions.

    Recommend the Type of Rogers PCB

     

    Rogers 4350B

    The Rogers 4350B’s materials are suited for high power RF designs and super-active appliances due to their low loss capability and reliable control of their dielectric constant (DK).

    Rogers 3003

    With a frequency of 77 GHz, this Rogers PCB type is suitable for automobile radar applications, as well as 5G wireless applications and ADAS.

    Rogers 3006 

    The 3006 type has outstanding mechanical and electrical stability, as well as a consistent dielectric constant throughout a wide range of temperatures. It also removes the step change from the Dk.

    Rogers 3010 

    The 3010 is one of the most cost-effective variants that uses advanced ceramic-filled PTFE materials. As a result, its stability simplifies the broadband components.

    Rogers 5880

    The Rogers 5880 is made of glass microfibers and has a low DK and loss characteristic. As a result, the model is well-suited for broadband and high-frequency applications.

    Rogers 6002 

    The 6002 variant is equipped with low DK materials that are suited for complex microwave designs. As a result, it is perfect for multi-layer board designs.

    Rogers 6010 

    This RO6010 is excellent for microwave and electronic board applications where a high DK is required. Furthermore, the model is perfect if you intend to deal with circuit size reduction.

    Rogers 4003 

    The Rogers 4003 model employs glass fabric types 1674 and 1080. Its settings are all the same; they do not support bromination.

    Rogers 4835 

    This 4835 laminate is a low-loss material with great stability at high temperatures and significant oxidation resistance. It provides traditional glass or epoxy FR-4 methods as well as low-cost circuit fabrication.

    Rogers 4360G2 

    This laminate strikes the ideal balance between processing capabilities and performance. Furthermore, the low-loss laminate is made up of hydrocarbon ceramic-filled thermostat components.

    How to Choosing the Right Substances to Handle High Frequency PCBs?

    1.Different signal working frequency has different requirements for PCB high frequency board plate.

    Rogers PCB

    2.work in 622Mb/s above fiber optic communication products and 1G above 3GHz below the small signal microwave transceiver. you can use modified epoxy resin materials such as S1139. 10GHz due to more stable, lower cost, multi-layer press board process and FR4 the same. Such as 622Mb/s data multiplexing split, clock extraction. small signal amplification, optical transceiver and other similar plates. So that the production of multi-layer board and cost is slightly higher than FR4 (high 4 cents / cm2 or so). the disadvantage is that the thickness of the substrate is not as complete as FR4 varieties.

    At present, the domestic general use is RO4350, RO4003c single-sided high frequency board. double-sided high frequency board. multi-layer high frequency board. high frequency mixed pressure board, high frequency pure pressure board.

    Such as RO4003C Rogers high-frequency plate manufacturers . produce specifications of 10mil/20mil/30mil/60mil . and other four kinds of plate thickness is commonly used. of course, there are Rogers or Taconite plates. mainly according to your design requirements to choose different models of high-frequency plate. the dielectric constant 2.2-10.6 ranging.

    3.PCB board working below 1GHz can choose FR4. with low cost and mature multi-layer press board technology. If the signal impedance is low (50 ohms), it needs strict impedance and interline coupling when wiring. The disadvantage is that different high frequency board manufacturers . and different batches of FR4 boards have different doping and dielectric constants (4.2-5.4).

    4.3GHz below the large signal microwave circuits. such as power amplifiers and low-noise amplifiers recommended to use similar RO4350 plate. RO4350 dielectric constant is quite stable. dielectric constant RO4003C dielectric constant of 3.38. these two conventional high-frequency plate. loss factor are relatively low, good heat resistance characteristics. processing technology and FR4 equivalent.

    Contact us for more information about Rogers PCB.

    Contact US

    gesptechnologypcbAugust 2, 2022 Blog 0 Comment126views
  • You Need to Know Tips for Multilayer PCB Stackup

    Why do we choose Multilayer PCB Stackup?

     

    Multilayer PCB trends are high speed, multifunction, large capacity, and small volume. With the continuous development of electronics technology. especially the extensive and in-depth application of large-scale integrated circuits. Multilayer printed circuit boards are rapidly developing to high density and high precision. micro-fine lines, small aperture penetration. such as blind buried holes, and high board thickness. aperture ratio, and other technologies to meet the needs of the market.

     

    The Purpose of Multilayer PCB Stackup

    The current multilayer PCB production process is to achieve the incremental layers and then stack them up together. At first, the inner board was finished. and then layer by layer by stack-up-fit for structured layer increase. To fully cure the material to increase the stability of the board between the layers Each lamination usually needs to reach a temperature of 175 °C and maintain it for more than 70 minutes. to achieve the standard lamination environment for the application of substrates plus the waiting time for the heating up and cooling down processes. Single lamination times are usually up to 4 hours or more. The more layers, the more laminations, and the longer the production cycle of the board.

     

    What is A Multilayer PCB?

    A multilayer PCB is a multi-layer alignment layer circuit board. For example, between every two layers, there is a thin dielectric layer. Multilayer PCBs have at least three conductive layers, two of which are on the outer surface, while the insulating board synthesizes the remaining layer. The electrical connection is usually achieved by plating holes. These holes are in the cross-section of the board. During production, each layer produced well. optical equipment and stacked together. Let the multi-layer circuit be stacked up on a piece of PCB. This is a multi-layer circuit board. Multilayer PCB types are multilayer rigid PCB, multilayer flexible PCB, and multilayer flexible PCB.

     

    What are Benefits of Multilayer PCB?

     

    The Multilayer PCB has many features. high assembly density, small size, lightweight. The high assembly density reduced the connections between the components. Thus improving reliability. At the same time, it increased the number of layers of wiring. thus increasing design flexibility. It can form a circuit with a certain impedance; it can also form a high-speed transmission circuit. There are also set-circuit and magnetic shielding layers. and metal core heat dissipation layers. That can be set to meet the needs of shielding, heat dissipation, and other special functions. and simple installation, high reliability.

    But there are also some disadvantages to multilayer PCB. high product price; a long production cycle; and requires sophisticated testing methods.

    The Production Process of Multilayer PCB

     

    • Opening-inner
    • Layer-lamination
    • Drilling-sink
    • Copper-line-figure
    • Electric-etching-solder
    • Resist-character-
    • Spray tin/sink golden
    • V-cut
    • Flying test
    • Vacuum packing
    • ADSDS

    Types of Multilayer PCB Stackup

     

    1. Kraft Paper For Multilayer PCB Stack-up

    multi-layer er board lamination, more than the use of kraft paper as a heat transfer buffer. Place the kraft paper between the hot plate and the steel plate of the laminating machine. with a slope that is closest to the heating curve of the bulk material. so that it can easily stack-up multiple substrates. multi-layer plate between the layers of the plate to minimize the temperature difference. commonly used specifications for 90 pounds to 150 pounds.

    2 .Kissing Stackup, Low Stack-up

    When finished multilayer PCB stackup together. after the sheets are placed in each opening position. The temperature increased from the stack-up’s top column. and lifted upward from the bottom layer to stack-up the loose material into each opening for bonding. At the same time, the film for bonding starts to soften gradually and even flows. The stack-upure used for top extrusion cannot be too large. This method initially uses a lower stack-upure (15 to 50 PSI) called “kissing stack-upure”.

    But when the resin softens in each film loose material by heat and gelatinization, it needs to be raised to full stack-upure (300  500 PSI), called “low stack-upure.”

    3. Copper foil Stack-Duping Method

    Refers to the mass-produced multilayer PCB. the outer layer of copper foil and film with the inner skin stack-uped together. to replace the traditional stack-up law of the early single-sided thin substrate.

    4. Boil Stack-up Method

    It is a kind of container filled with high-temperature saturated water. vapor and can apply high air stack-upure. The laminated substrate specimen was put in it. for a while to force the water vapor into the plate. and then remove the plate specimen and place it on the high-temperature molten tin surface. to measure whether it is separate for each layer.

    5 Large stack-up board (lamination)

    Use copper foil to pre-position on the inner laminate. and scanned for positioning after stack-uping. and then drill out the tool hole from its center to be set on the drilling machine for drilling.

    6. Stacked-up Method

    Before stack-uping multi-layer PCB or substrates. We need to prepare the inner board, film, copper skin, and other kinds of loose material. even steel, kraft paper padding. to complete the top-to-bottom alignment, to be able to be carefully sent into the stack-up for hot stack-uping. for the sake of mass production speed and quality. The 8 layers need to be in automated way. Many factories combine “laminating” and “folding” into a comprehensive processing unit. The automation project is quite complicated.

    Guide for Multilayer PCB Stackup

     

    We get the PCB board, you will find that the thickness is about 1mm. look carefully, in this 1mm thickness, you will see a lot of layering. PCB production is not a complete bare board production. It is made of many different materials, layer by layer, stack-uped together.

    1. The inner layer of the line production complex

    multilayer PCB lines have high speed, thick copper, and high frequency. even high Tg value of various special requirements. The requirements for the inner layer. wiring and graphic size control are getting higher and higher. For example, ARM development board, the inner layer has many impedance signal lines. but also to ensure the integrity of the impedance. so it increases the difficulty of the inner layer line production.

    1. Alignment difficulties between inner layers

      The number of layers of multilayer PCBs is increasing. and the alignment requirements of the inner layers are getting higher. if under the influence of temperature and humidity in the workshop environment. The film will rise and shrink. and the core board will also rise and shrink to a certain extent after production. which makes the alignment accuracy between the inner layers more complicated.

    1. Difficulties in the stack-uping process:

       The stacking of multiple core boards and PP is prone to delamination. slippage and vapor pack residue when stack-uped together. In the process of designing the structure of the inner layer. we should consider the thickness of the dielectric between the layers, and the flow of glue. also contain the heat resistance of the sheet and other factors. and design to the corresponding stack-uped structure.

    1. Difficulties in drilling production

       Multi-layers made of high Tg or other special plates. The roughness of the drilling of various materials is different. which increases the difficulty of removing the glue slag in the hole. Due to the high-density multilayer PCB. The production efficiency is low and it is easy to break the knife. and between different networks of over-holes The hole edges being too close to each other will lead to a CAF effect problem. So, the spacing between the hole edges of different networks was kept at 0.3mm.

     

    Factors Affecting the Quality of Multilayer PCB Stackup 

     

    Many customers lack understanding of the laminating process. It often happens after getting the multilayer PCB. we found that PCB warped edge. rolled circles and the board has the obvious problem of delamination. There are even serious quality problems, such as the existence of the inner layer of broken roads. A big reason is a piece of equipment. process and there are many defects, resulting in uncontrollable laminating quality.

    Have advanced production equipment

    The stack-up machine can accurately control the heating and cooling of the hot plate. the thermal cycle and liquid stack-upure, temperature control. Through the operation of the cold stack-up. it can effectively eliminate stress. to carry out each stack-up lamination in an efficient and high-quality way.

    And the equipment has excellent processing accuracy. thus guaranteeing the reliability and low failure rate of equipment production. Together with high hardness and flat imported steel plate. raw material, high-quality PP sheet (bonding sheet), and supporting professional equipment. it can effectively avoid process defects and improve stack-up lamination quality. Such as.

    Avoid excessive glue flow. uneven glue content between inner layers leading to board warping. delamination and other process defects, guarantee the high yield of multi-layer lamination!

    Very low failure rate and precision automation control can reduce production risk. maintain efficient and stable production, saving time for customers!

    Quality of laminated steel plates

    Steel plate is one of the core accessories of lamination. such as insufficient hardness, poor flatness, etc. will cause damage to the process, such as laminated thickness tolerance precision is not high. The board surface has an indentation, etc. GESP PCB adopts imported mirror steel plates. It has high hardness, high toughness, heat resistance, stack-upure resistance, and wear resistance. It can resist thermal expansion and contraction in the handling process of collision. friction caused by deformation and scratches. Even if stack-uped together, the steel plate can still maintain a very high flatness.

     

    high-precision X-ray target drilling machine, hot melt machine, and PP bonding sheet.

    X-RAY drilling target machine used for alignment between layers after lamination. The principle is that after the lamination of multilayer plates The X-Ray is used to judge the alignment between the inner layers and the punch positioning holes.

    The hot melt machine is used to bond the PP to the core board through high temperature and stack-upure. The common riveting processing together. the accuracy of the alignment between layers affected the tolerance of the rivet holes. and the impact of the stack-uped together will lead to the deformation of the rivet and cause the deviation between layers.

    PP bonding sheet:

    PP sheet is a sheet material. in which the resin is in the B-phase, under the effect of temperature and stack-upure. it has fluidity and can quickly cure and complete the bonding process. and form the insulation layer together with the carrier.

     

    gesptechnologypcbJuly 29, 2022 Blog 0 Comment114views
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  • How to Efficiency Improve PCB Layout Services?

    As we kow, we need to design a PCB layout services once and can produce a large number of PCBs. because PCBs are used to connect electronic components via conductive tracks. This enables circuit prototyping and electronic product manufacturing. Mass production of PCB-based electronics is faster. and less expensive than production of electronics using alternative wiring techniques.  Because components mounted on a PCB and wired at the same time. As a result, GESP Sharing PCB layout experiences improves efficiency.

    When it comes to PCBs, the most important part is designing the layout. because it determines the location of the various components . and their ultimate role in the desired product. This guide will walk you through the process of designing a PCB layout services and using it to manufacture PCBs. In this article we will konw about :

    • What is PCB Design and Layout?
    • How to Choose PCB Design Software?
    • Steps For Basic PCB Design
    • Document For Design
    • Understand PCB layout design rules

    What is PCB Design and PCB Layout Services?

     

    Before fabricating the PCB, a layout need to created in special software . that determines how the finished product will look.

    The design files contain the shape of the PCB, the placements of the components. that soldered on the PCB, and the electrical connections between the various pads . and pins of the various components on the PCB.

    PCB fabrication requires Gerber files (or files). Gerber files are open ASCII vector format files . that contain information on each physical board layer of your PCB design.

     

    gerber file

    Copper traces, vias, pads, solder masks, and silkscreen images. these are all represented by a flash or draw code and defined by a series of vector coordinates.

    The CAM engineering software used by the manufacturer to create the circuit boards . uses manufacturing data to create two-dimensional or three-dimensional PCB designs.

    They receive all of the information required from the Gerber files. in order to etch the copper layers, create the component pads. and connection traces, drill all required holes. and profile the board to the required size.

    How to Choose PCB Design Software for PCB Layout Services?

     

    There are numerous programs available. ranging from simple and easy to use to highly sophisticated. They range from free or low-cost to high-end. premium and include basic to advanced features.

    Each tool is distinct and one-of-a-kind in its own way. Finally, what CAD program you want to use that determined by your needs and preferences.

    Having stated that , three PCB design packages are the most popular . and widely regarded as the best:Eagle /KiCad /Altium Designer. However, most hardware entrepreneurs, startups. and makers prefer DipTrace, a lesser-known PCB design package.

    Steps for Basic PCB Design

     

    From the moment you realize you need a PCB to final production. PCB design plays a role in every step of the printed circuit board production process. 5 steps comprise the basic design process.

     

    1. Conceptualization

     

    After determining the need for a PCB, the next step is to develop the board’s final design. This initial phase entails defining the functions and capabilities of the PCB. as well as its features, interconnection with other circuits. placement in the final product, and approximate dimensions. Consider the approximate temperature range in which the board will operate. as well as any other environmental concerns.

     

    2. Schematic

     

    The following step is to create a circuit schematic based on the final concept. This diagram contains all of the information. required for the board’s electrical components to function properly. as well as details such as component names. value, rating, and manufacturer part numbers.

    You’ll be creating your bill of materials while you’re working on your schematic. This BOM includes all of the components required for your PCB. Keep these two documents up to date at all times.

    pcb design layout

     

    3. Diagram of Board-Level Blocks

     

    Following that, you will create a board-level block diagram. which is a drawing that describes the final dimensions of the PCB. Mark areas for each block, as well as sections of components . This connected for electrical reasons or due to constraints. Keeping related components together . will allow you to keep your traces as short as possible.

     

    4.Component Positioning

     

    The next step is component placement. It determines the placement of each piece on the board. It is common to go through several rounds of component placement refinement. Routing on the First Pass and Determine the routing . and routing priority for the circuit next.

     

    5.Evaluation

     

    After you’ve finished the design. you should run a series of tests to ensure it meets all of your requirements.If so, the design is complete. If not, you will return to the required modification phases.

    Document For Design & PCB Layout Services

     

    As you work on your PCB Layout serivces, you’ll generate a slew of documents. These documents are as follows:

    • The Hardware Dimensional Drawings: Describes the bare board’s size
    • The Schematic: Maps out the board’s electrical features
    • The Bill of Materials: Describes the project’s components. The Layout File: Describes the basic layout of the PCB.
    • The Component Placement File: Identifies the location of the separate components.
    • The Assembly Drawings and Instructions: Describes how to put the board together.
    • Although not needed, user guides are valuable . for providing the user with additional information.
    • The Gerber File Set is a collection of layout output files that the PCB manufacturer will use to create the PCB.

    efficiency improve PCB LAYOUT

     

    Consideration For PCB Layout Design

    There is a lot to think about when it comes to PCB layout services and design. Some considerations are general to the entire process. while others are specific to specific steps. Here are 6 important considerations.

    1. Board Restrictions

    The first constraints to consider are those related to the bare board. The size and shape of the board are two of these fundamental constraints.

    You must ensure that the circuit has enough board space. The size of the final product determines the size of the board. the functionality the board must provide, and other factors. Electronic products and the circuit boards that power them are shrinking in size. Estimate the size of the board before beginning the design process. If a simpler design does not provide enough space for all of the functionality required. you may need to use a multilayer or high-density interconnect (HDI) design.

    The typical PCB is rectangular. This is still by far the most common shape for PCBs. However, You can make other kinds of boards.. Most PCB designers do this due to size constraints or for use in irregularly shaped products.

    Another critical factor to consider is the number of layers required. Power levels and design complexity will determine this. It is best to determine how many you will require early in the layout design process. Adding more layers will raise your production costs but allow you to include more tracks. This needed for boards that are more complicated and have more functions.

    To make layer transitions for all high-current paths, use at least two vias. The use of multiple vias at layer transitions improves reliability. thermal conductivity, and reduces inductive and resistive losses.

    2. Manufacturing Methodologies

    You should also think about the manufacturing processes you want to use to make the board. Different methods have different constraints and limitations. On the board, you’ll need to use reference holes or points. that are compatible with the manufacturing process. Always keep components out of holes.

    Keep the board mounting method in mind as well. Depending on your approach, you may need to leave different areas of the board open. Using multiple technology types, such as through-hole and surface mount components. can raise the cost of your boards but is sometimes necessary.

    Always check with your fabricator to ensure that they can produce the type of board you require. Some may be unable to manufacture boards with multiple layers . or those with a flexible design.

    efficiency PCB layout

     

    3. Materials and Parts

    Consider the materials and components. you intend to use for your board during the layout phase. You must first ensure that the desired items are available. Some materials and parts are difficult to obtain, while others are prohibitively expensive. Different components and materials may also have different design requirements.

    Spend time making sure you’ve chosen the best materials and components for your board. as well as designing a board that plays to those items’ strengths.

     

    4. Order of Component Placement

    The placement order of components on the board is one of the most essential PCB design rules. Connectors come first, followed by power circuits, precision circuits. critical circuits, and the rest of the elements. Power levels, noise susceptibility, generation. and routing capability all have an impact on a circuit’s routing priority.

    5. Placing

    When arranging components, try to orient those that are similar in the same direction. This will improve the efficiency of the soldering process and help to avoid mistakes.

    On the solder side of the PCB, you shouldn’t put parts that will sit behind plated through-hole parts.

     

    6. Organizing

    Organizing your components logically can reduce the number of assembly steps required. increasing efficiency and lowering costs. Attempt to place all surface mount components on one side of the board . and all through-hole components on the other.

    Conclusion

     

    Once upon a time, PCB designers were draftsman. The measure of their craft was twofold—the quality of lines and speed of completion. But designs have changed, and so have designers. They’ve adapted to increasingly complex designs. And their tools have evolved, too.

    The top PCB designers utilize their years of experience . to create something that has never existed before.. No longer is productivity the sole measure of their craft. Now, they’re solving problems. And for those complex problems. the payoff makes it worth investing in better designers.

    Engineering Insights While Designing

    Board design is the final realization of all the theory that comes before. Pulling electrical, mechanical. and manufacturing analysis into the design tool frees. the designer to find creative and innovative solutions to complex product design challenges.

     

    Live in-design feedback informs engineering decisions.

    Timing is everything. Information too early is a distraction, and information too late is a curse. Designers need to keep an eye out for mechanical. physical, and manufacturing issues before they become problems. Real-time visual feedback helps designers see what is otherwise invisible. so they can make informed decisions and meet PCB design guidelines.

    See Through High-Speed Signal Challenges

    You’re not going to overcome new product design challenges by following the old rules. Advanced signal integrity simulation and analysis defines new timing. and length rules unique to specific designs. Design rule-based visual cues on the canvas guide your team’s expert engineers. through the latest routing techniques and strategies. to make it easy to conquer high-speed signal challenges and dense boards.

    gesptechnologypcbFebruary 20, 2020 Blog 4 Comment968views
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